Belém is a Brazilian city, the capital and largest city of state of Pará in the country's north. It is the entrance gate to the River Amazon with a busy port, airport, and bus/coach station. Belém lies approximately 100 km upriver from the Atlantic Ocean, on the Pará River, which is part of the greater Amazon River system, separated from the larger part of the Amazon delta by Ilha de Marajó (Marajo Island). With an estimated population of 1,402,056 people —or 2,249,405, considering its metropolitan area— it is the 11th most populous city in Brazil (besides being the second largest in the North Region, second only to Manaus, in Amazonas state) as well as the 16th by economic relevance.Founded in 1616 by the Kingdom of Portugal, Belém was the first European colony on the Amazon but did not become part of Brazil until 1775. The newer part of the city has modern buildings and skyscrapers. The colonial portion retains the charm of tree-filled squares, churches and traditional blue tiles. The city has a rich history and architecture from colonial times. Recently it witnessed a skyscraper boom.