Nijmegen, historically anglicized as Nimeguen, is a municipality and a city in the European country the Netherlands. There it forms part of the eastern province of Gelderland, where it is situated on the Waal river, quite near to the German border.Nijmegen is among the three oldest cities in the Netherlands, and in 2005, celebrated 2,000 year of existence.The municipality is part of the "Stadsregio Arnhem-Nijmegen" (Cityregion Arnhem-Nijmegen), a metropolitan area with 736,107 inhabitants (January 2011).Population centresThe municipality is formed by the city of Nijmegen, incorporating the former villages of Hatert, Hees and Neerbosch, as well as the urban expansion project of Waalsprong, situated north of the river Waal and including the village of Lent and the hamlet of 't Zand, as well as the new suburbs of Nijmegen-Oosterhout and Nijmegen-Ressen.HistoryThe first mention of Nijmegen in history is in the 1st century BC, when the Romans built a military camp on the place where Nijmegen was to appear; the location had great strategic value because of the surrounding hills, which gave (and continue to give) a good view over the Waal and Rhine valley.