Oxford is a city in South East England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of 150,200 it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, and one of the fastest growing and most ethnically diverse.Oxford has a broad economic base. Its industries include motor manufacturing, education, publishing, and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots.The city is known worldwide as the home of Oxford University, the oldest university in the English-speaking world.Buildings in Oxford demonstrate examples of every English architectural period since the arrival of the Saxons, including the mid-18th-century Radcliffe Camera. Oxford is known as the "city of dreaming spires", a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold.HistoryMedievalOxford was first settled in Saxon times and was initially known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "Ford of the Oxen"; fords were more common than bridges at that time. It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes.